Map and Chronology

897/1492: Fall of Granada. Tens of thousands of Jewish and Muslim refugees flee Andalusia and settle in Fez and beyond. At the Alhambra palace, Christopher Columbus receives his contract for the journey to the New World.

898/1493: Abu-Abdullah Muhammad (Boabdil), the last king of Granada, arrives in Fez with his mother, Aisha al-Hurra (Aixa La Honesta.)

899/1494: The Treaty of Tordesillas divides the sphere of influence outside the Iberian Peninsula: all lands to the east belong to Portugal, while those to the west belong to Spain.

902/1497: Vassalage of Azemmur. The city will pay a tribute of 10,000 shad to Portugal annually. Spain captures the city of Melilla.

903/1497: Mustafa al-Zemmuri (Estebanico) is born.

908/1502: Portugal captures Mazghan (modern-day El Jadida.)

911/1505: Portugal captures Agadir.

912/1506: Portugal captures Souira Guedima.

919/1513: Ponce de Leon lands in Florida, which he thinks is an island.

919/1513: The governor of Azemmur refuses to pay the annual tax to the Portuguese. They respond by sending a fleet and occupying the city, then building its famous ramparts.

920/1514: The Ottomans sack Cairo.

923-26/1517-20: Hernán Cortés lands in the Yucatan. The conquest of Mexico unfolds.

926/1520: Drought in the Dukkala province.

928/1522: An earthquake strikes Fez, partially destroying the city.

930/1524: The Saadians capture Marrakesh.

933/1527: In the summer, the Narváez expedition leaves from the port of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, near Seville, with five ships and 600 men.

934/1528: The fleet lands in Florida, in the vicinity of Tampa Bay. A golden rattle is found.

934/1528: On April 16, Narváez orders the entire expedition to disembark and claims possession of the land in the name of the King of Spain.

938/1532: Francisco Pizarro conquers the Inca empire.

940/1534: Henry VIII separates the Church of England from the Catholic Church.

942/1536: Cabeza de Vaca and Estebanico come across a party of Spanish slavers in what is now Sinaloa, in northwest Mexico. A few months later, Hernán Cortes and Antonio de Mendoza welcome the survivors in Mexico.

943/1537: Sublimus Dei. The Pope declares that the indigenous people of America are rational beings endowed with souls, and forbids their enslavement.

948/1541: The Portuguese leave Azemmur.

949/1542: Cabeza de Vaca’s account of the Narváez expedition is published in Spain, under the title La Relación.

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